a nurse is caring for a client who has a sodium level of 155 This is a topic that many people are looking for. cfiva.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, cfiva.org would like to introduce to you Electrolyte Imbalances | Hyponatremia (Low Sodium). Following along are instructions in the video below:
Guys nurse mike here and welcome to simple nursing comm now before we get today todays lecture started please remember to access your free quiz and preview. Our cool new study guides not here on youtube. Click the link right up here at any time during this video.
All right guys lets begin today were wrapping up hyponatremia hypo meaning low natural meaning sodium and emmy up meaning in the blood. So sodium. Less than 1 3.
5. Micro equivalents in the blood. Now.
Main causes. That drain sodium from the body and into the body. We use the 4 ds.
So drains like ng tube diuretics diarrhea as well as diaphoresis profuse sweating simply all fluids that leave your body have some type of electrolytes because were fluids flow electrolytes go. But the other causes of low sodium. We use the acronym siadh.
So the s is actually siadh syndrome of ineffective antidiuretic hormone. So if you guys remember adh means add d h2o for acronym. Now spanish for yes is c.
So yes. Add the h2o siadh. Retains water dilutes sodium in the blood.
And so we have this low liquid e lab values called chemo dilutions. I stands for intoxication of water. So.
He mode. I lucian again leading to low sodium. Those low liquid.
E lab values. A stands for adrenal.
Insufficiency. Is like adrenal crisis with our addisons disease. Patients basically waste sodium from the body and puts.
It in the potty. D. Is for our diuretics.
Like thiazide x. and loop diuretics generic names for hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. Both of these are considered potassium wasting as well as sodium wasting diuretics lastly h.
Is for heat exhaustion or high fever. Which causes massive sweating. Something called diaphoresis.
Okay. Signs and symptoms and nursing assessments for a low sodium. Well.
Whats going on in hyponatremia. Well. Its low low sodium right and since sodium is the queen of blood pressure and blood ball well.
Then everything in the body should be depressed and deflated right well wrong. It actually depends on the type of hyponatremia. But the two main types are hypovolemic hyponatremia basically a loss of fluid and sodium together and hypervolemic hyponatremia.
Basically an increase of body water greater than sodium now before you get too confused and start reconsidering your career choice. Lets make this simple and really focus in on what the tests will ask you now what do you really think theyre gonna ask you well prioritization signs and symptoms of course who are you gonna assess first so write these down. Were gonna go from mild to severe mild.
Youll have fatigue. Nausea. Vomiting and headache.
Malaise. Or altered. Loc.
Level of consciousness. As well as lethargy or basically weakness. Now severe signs that you really have to prioritize and assess first are seizures brain stem herniation coma respiratory arrest which all lead to death these are priority signs and symptoms that your test and your nclex will expect you guys to know theyll ask what patient will the nurse see first so guys really pause this video write those down.
Because honestly they are very critical. Now heres a little hint for you we have nclex prioritization and delegation questions in this next. Little video series here at simple nursing calm.
So guys please dont worry i got you now for our general signs and symptoms so in the heart. The cardiovascular system vital signs will depend on the type of hyponatremia. If we have hypovolemic basically low low fluid and sodium youll have increased heart rate basically the hearts trying to pump to provide fluids to the major organs decrease blood pressure basically not enough fluid volume and no pressure in the veins.
The vascular space increased respiratory rate because again not enough fluid hence not enough oxygen and the lungs are trying to compensate now on the other side of the coin. If you have hypervolemic high high fluid increased heart rate because too much fluid. The heart will try to pump harder to push out that fluid.
Therell be increased blood pressure because of all that fluid in the vascular spaces and decreased respirations difficulty breathing due to that fluid volume overload putting all that pressure on the lungs as far as ekgs. Therell be cardiac dysrhythmias st. Elevations on the ecg because the ventricles are cramping up and not relaxing or repolarizing basically not recharging for the lungs.
Theyll be shortness of breath and dyspnea known as difficulty breathing gi nazia. Vomiting and abdominal cramping neurologically your brain. And spinal cord.
Youll have restlessness and confusion. Which will lead to seizures and comas and the muscles youll have general weakness so nursing interventions for at low sodium hyponatremia. So guys.
What are we gonna do about it well. Its a simple fix really we just add salt we use actually the acronym add salts so a we administer iv saline solution but caution it depends on what type of hyponatremia. We have if we have hypovolemic hyponatremia.
The body has this low low fluid. So isotonic solutions like normal saline or lactated ringers for hypervolemic hyponatremia.
We have high high fluids so guys were not gonna give iv fluids. Well just do water retention and furosemide are loop diuretics now only for severe cases in both conditions. We use a very super salty hypertonic solution.
Like 3 saline. Its very very thick and it puts salt back in your body. Very quickly so d stands for diuretics or dialysis especially true for hypervolemic hyponatremia that high high fluid volume so diuretics.
Well get all that extra water out of the body and into the potty now if your patients kidneys are broken like in renal failure. Well use the back up kidney. Our dialysis machine to suck out all the excess fluids.
These stands for daily weights. So remember where sodium goes water flows. So infusing a lot of sodium will cause weight gain.
This edema basically making your skin. Look like a waterbed. So please watch for that as a nurse s stands for safety our patients.
With low sodium have huge risk for falls. So use fall. Precautions.
And this is pretty much due to orthostatic hypotension. Which is that low blood pressure upon standing so a huge risk for passing out and falling a stands for airway precautions. So your patient will be on npo nothing per oral your patients probably confused and the last thing you really need is a choking patient so guys airway precautions npo l.
Is for limits the water intake for patients with hypervolemic hyponatremia guys theyre already water filled and fluid filled so stop that water tea is for teach so foods high in salt like canned foods processed meats and cheeses anything packaged or basically the diet of any normal nursing students. But am i right though uh im right there all right heres a list that students usually dont think about an end up getting wrong on their exams salad dressing soy sauces. Any type of sauce or seasoning vegetable juices.
Especially those can like tomato juices like v8 and even chinese foods or cup of noodle soup. Oh. Wait what this oh come on man.
This is all i can afford after my tuition. I mean i could be helping a treatment you never know alright guys that wraps up our lesson here and well see you in the next video. .
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