how does a lithium cation compare to a lithium atom This is a topic that many people are looking for. cfiva.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, cfiva.org would like to introduce to you How Lithium Ionizes and Bonds –. Following along are instructions in the video below:
Everyone mr. Cozzi here with another problem of the week and this week. Our problem problem comes from nicole and she had several questions.
Im gonna try and get three or four from done here with this lesson. How does lithium become an ion and bond and a lot of things can be covered here as we talked about lithium. How it becomes an ion and especially a cation and how does it bond got to remember first that lithium is a metal.
Which means it will lose electrons and become a cation and have a past positive charge. I know that just from the fact that lithium is a metal alright to the blackboard. How many valence electrons lithium has one valence electron and you can find that on the periodic table.
You go to the periodic table. And you look and see that there is just one valence electron so lets draw the lewis dot symbol. So it has one electron.
So well put that electron in there. Theres the lewis dot symbol and now we need to remember the octet rule and by the way. If you need to brush up on valence electrons or the octet rule.
I believe there are some videos on my youtube site that you can go to and get refreshed on those the octet rule. Says atoms tend to gain or lose electrons in order to obtain a noble gas configuration and basically what they want is they want to either drop. And lose an electron or move ahead and gain electrons.
But what we have to remember that if it loses it becomes positive and if it gains it becomes negative because electrons are negative. So if you lose something negative you become more positive or if you gain something negative. Then you become more negative gain or lose well we need to remember something that is nature tends toward the lowest energy and it requires energy to lose or gain electrons.
So it doesnt matter if you lose electrons to gain electrons. Its gonna cost you energy. So really which way is going to be the fewest losing or gaining.
So well lithium gain or lose lets check it out lets go the periodic table on the periodic table. We see that lithium is right there in the first column and by the way that whole family. The alkaline family.
They all have one valence electron so will it lose one electron and go back to helium or will it become like neon and gain seven electrons well the rule is the easiest way the lowest energy and so its easier to lose one than it is to gain seven electrons well. I would say its going to lose lithium will lose one electron and become a cation and thats how we would write. It lithium plus has a plus.
One charge back to the blackboard. Lets talk about the bonding of lithium. Now.
The bonding of lithium and the rules here applied to the whole alkali family. And it also applies to the alkaline earth metal family. Youre just dealing with a two plus instead of a one plus charge.
So theres a lithium with its 1 charge that we already know and then lets combine it with oxygen now just to see if youve been paying attention. What is oxygens valence. So go look on your periodic table and count over.
And you notice. If you count over its six times oxygen has a valence of six so im gonna write out their lewis that symbol now what charge does oxygen have is it going to lose six electrons to go back to helium or is it going to gain two and become like neon well again. If you remember the rule about going to the easiest energy.
It would gain two it would be easier to gain two than to lose six. So then we have a negative two charge because when you gain electrons you become negative. Now.
The question here is will they combine will they react and of course. They will because opposites attract and now that i know opposites attract. I know that those two are going to combine how are they going to combine well we got a problem if you note that we have a negative two charge on the oxygen.
But a plus one charge on the lithium. Theyre not balanced and in order to be a compound. You must be balanced.
Now. I question that a lot of people. Ask me here.
Sometimes is why arent polyatomic. Ions compounds. Polyatomic ions are not compounds.
Because they have a charge and compounds do not have a charge and also because they have a charge theyre going to quickly combine with other substances negative polyatomic ions are going to go with things that are positive because opposites attract and positive polyatomic ions are going to go with things that are negative. Because opposites attract. So what we have to remember here is that in order to be a compound.
We must be balanced so my goal here is to balance out these two charges and the best way. I can do that is to add two lithium. Instead of having one with him add another lithium.
And i have two so ill do that there we go now two lithium and one oxygen will combine to be lithium oxide now. Remember i dont have to use any numerical prefixes. Because this is a ionic compound.
Its a metal and a nonmetal and usually a metal and nonmetal. It means ionic and of course. This one lithium oxide is very ionic so its not a problem.
But its lithium oxide and so there we have it we saw. Lithium charge. We saw that lithium is an cation and we saw that oxygen is an anion and the two come together and make lithium oxide.
So review. Metal or nonmetal. Lewis dot symbol octet rule.
Oxidation number and charts balanced use your periodic table all of these things are very. Important. If you have any questions.
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