who is responsible for systematizing bowing strokes for the string section in an orchestra? This is a topic that many people are looking for. cfiva.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, cfiva.org would like to introduce to you Orchestration Question 8: Marking Bowings. Following along are instructions in the video below:
I mock the bowings myself in my string parts not unless you yourself are an an experienced string player and not even then to be clear about this from the marking boeings means. The addition of up bow and down bow marks not the simple necessity of adding slurs. Its the responsibility of the concertmaster to assign these bowing marks to any work that the orchestra is to perform they bring the weight of their experience and leadership to the task of sorting out how to mark bowing.
So that all the members of the string section play with unity or differentiation in contrapuntal passages. But beyond the simple mathematics of making the bow strokes. All come out evenly in the end our artistic considerations.
Which series of bow strokes will most efficiently. Realize the expression of a gesture. What are the particular strengths of each section and how will they affect the energy of the delivery part of the definition of leadership entails knowing.
The capabilities and style of everyone whom youre leading and how to make the best use of those factors. Since this differs widely from orchestra to orchestra. There really can be no standard addition of marked parts for any work.
Though certainly. The typical orchestra can make do with any decent set of boings on short notice concert masters. Frequently take a set of existing marked parts make a few adjustments and leave it at that what does that mean for you since your original work or new orchestration is going to be a premiere.
Then the chief way you can help with the bowings is to submit your score in parts on time. So. That the concert master has a chance to look them over and mark.
Boeings your services arent required for marking boeings and in fact can be a very annoying hindrance as little time as the librarian may have to copy out all the parts. They have even less time to go through every page of every string. Part with wite out blanking out your directions.
So the concert master can start with a clean slate. There are exceptions of course. If theres a passage that specifically needs to be bowed a certain way for a musical effect.
Then you should mark it most commonly this would be a row of down bows for extremely impatient. A series of up bows may also be used to help set up a particularly devastating down bow with lee being anticipation or you might want to indicate what shouldnt be done you may wish that a passage. We played strictly a rather than with a bouncing ricochet approach in that case mark a couple of up down boeings and leave it at that.
In fact. If there is a particular bowing approach that you want string players to take its best to mark its first and maybe second instance and then trust them to get it right for the rest of the time. This is similar to the approach.
You should take with articulations which ill cover in a future tip for now though learn to trust your concertmaster and leave it up to them to mark boeings in nearly every case hey there this is your orchestration tutor thomas goes off camera for the next. Few videos. While my house is under renovation.
This video was released in conjunction with the start of term. One of the massive open online orchestration course. The first assignment is to score a work for unaccompanied violin obviously.
This is going to bring up the issue of bowing marks and as i just explained. These are really for the players to decide and not the composer. However that doesnt mean the composer shouldnt think about bowing at all far from it you should work out the slurs in every bar.
So that players have a good scheme for working out their own bowing. There are really three issues at stake here. The natural up and down motion of the bow.
The strength of the bow stroke depending on its position and the expressive arc of the overall phrase lets take a quick look at each of these now and then you can get back to your work. First lets go back to bach whom. I praised in lesson.
One of the mooc for his clear and logical bowing schemes in the assigned score reading for that lesson. The third party. Too has some great examples of this for instance in the second bar of the opening.
Prelude. Bach assigns. A slur over a group of sixteenth notes.
Plus. The next eighth note. We tend to think of beem groups as single expressive units.
So why slur an extra note in this case. Its so that the next note can be played up bow. And the furious a momentum of the bowing can be preserved.
Bach uses a similar approach in many other places like the beginning of the jig where this time. The grouped beams are slurred one note short to change bow directions. So that a firm down bow.
May be applied to the beginning of the next group. This is just one example of thinking ahead on the part of a composer. You dont have to follow this example.
But consider the practical consequences of bowing motion. As you apply your own slurs. The second concern is one of emphasis as i covered in orchestration 101.
The string section. The bow starts strong and loses energy in a down bow. And the reverse and an up bow players correct this natural tendency and sustained notes.
But for the smoothest bowing. Its best to work with these variations of energy rather than against them this normally means that a downbeat gets a down bow and an up beat an up bow. But not always sometimes on a crescendo note.
The concertmaster will tweak the bowing so that the downbeat is an up bow or sometimes. The entire phrase must be planned ahead just so that the last note can end on a down bow back to bachs third party de again the givat bowing scheme. Implies that the final note of the first phrase should end in a long up bow.
But no violinist wants to do this watch a few performances on youtube. And see how each player solves. This problem gidon kremer simply starts with an up bow.
So that he can end on a down bow gil shaham on the other hand starts with a down bow. But then throws in two up bows in a row. Just before the final long down bow.
Bach could have solved all these problems simply by marking a slur on the second beat of the first complete bar. But he chooses not to and so violinists have had to adjust to the consequences for the rest of history. The final concern is simply how the natural tendencies of bowing can support an expressive idea this goes beyond up or down crescendo versus.
Dec. Crescendo and so on its more to do with the quality of melisma. How many notes should be connected in one smooth bow stroke.
This is something that can really only be answered by your own sense of lyricism. Just dont overestimate the length of the bow. The longer the slur the slower and therefore softer the bow stroke must be on the other hand avoid slurring into a downbeat or in any other way robbing the meter of a bar of its rhythmic emphasis in your scheme.
If someone in a string section raises their hand and asks the question whos got the downbeat in bar. 17. Then you may well need to work on your phrasing.
A bit more these orchestration questions will return soon with more topics that relate to the ongoing term. One mooc. See you soon you .
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