the population of individuals who are invited to participate in the research project is called the: This is a topic that many people are looking for. cfiva.org is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, cfiva.org would like to introduce to you Population & Sample: Writing Your Participant Section (The Quanitative Research Proposal Series). Following along are instructions in the video below:
To this tutorial on population in sample. This is dr. Amanda rockin sands app.
Queue queue and were going to talk about population and sample in light of writing participant section of a quantitative research proposal or plan. Were gonna talk about the necessary elements of a participant section for a quantitative proposal or plan. When youre writing your participant section.
There are a few things that you need to include and thats what were going to discuss you need to talk about the characteristics of your sample of your population of your assessable population. In your sampling frame you need to talk about your sampling design are you gonna use a single state or a multiple stage design and then what type of sampling within that design are you gonna use and what specific methods are youre going to use you need to talk about the needed sample size for both your chosen research design and your analysis and you need to talk about the type of assignment youre going to use if youre gonna do a group. Comparison study or do an intervention.
You need to talk about the assignment or an alternative so in this tutorial. Were gonna talk about all of these different things and were gonna spend some time defining them looking at examples so that by the end of this tutorial. You will hopefully be ready to write.
The participants section of your quantitative research proposal or plan. Lets start by reviewing the definitions of a few terms that are very important youve probably heard these terms before but its always good to have a review first of all theres the term sample. Remember.
The sample is the group of individuals that you plan to observe during your research. Usually your sample comes from your sampling frame or accessible. Population.
The sampling frame refers to the list of the sampling entities thats the individuals organizations or other planned unit of analysis. Its a list and from which basically your potential participants are drawn the assessable popular and then is the population to whom you have access and can generalize to if youre randomly sampling from it and finally theres this idea of population. Thats the larger group that you would like to generalize to now these terms and these definitions are somewhat abstract so lets put it in context in the context of a case study of a doctoral student named samantha.
Lets say. Samantha is interested in the population of online. Graduate.
Students. Since its not possible to study the entire population of online graduate students internationally or even in the united states. She has to consider who is assessable to her and she needs to draw a sample of individuals from this accessible population.
This will be her accessible population will probably be lets say a group of online graduate students at the university. Where she works. She has access to these students she can sample them she can implement a treatment with them so thats her accessible population.
Her sampling frame will be the potential list of students so those individuals who make it on a list of who she plans to contact to participate in her study. Thats her sampling frame. And then finally her sample are those online.
Graduate students who participate in her study. Now that you have a better understanding of these terms. Lets talk about what do you include in your proposed research plan or in your research proposal in terms of the population accessible population sampling frame and sample well in your proposed research plan you want to describe the population.
This includes. But isnt limited to a discussion about their sex makeup their age their ethnicity and other unique characteristics you then want to talk about your assessable population and sampling frame in light of the population. So what do you know about their sax ethnicity and other unique characteristics you also then want to list the demographic or the inferred demographic information and other information youre going to collect from your sample so that in your final report you can discuss for example the percentages of males versus females.
The ethnic makeup and you can state whether or not this reflects what is known about the population or doesnt reflect it so lets talk about this in terms of an example again these are some this is were talking somewhat abstractly and its always easier when you can take the abstract and make it concrete and the best way to do this is a case study. So lets say that theres a researcher who wants to study international school administrators. Thats the population and he or she has access lets say he he has access to international school principals from two international school organizations.
This is his assessable population. So hes going to talk about the what he knows in general from the literature about the international school administration population and then hes going to talk about what he knows about his assessable population. So information he can gather from these two organizations.
He then is going hes then going to talk about or may state that hes going to take a volunteer sample of the international school leaders from the list that are provided to him by these two organizations and lets say these two organizations are the international service schools and american sponsored overseas schools. His that list then remember is his sampling frame. And hes gonna describe how many people are or how many individuals are on that list.
Hes gonna describe what he knows about their ethnic makeup about their sex about any other unique characteristics. Hes also going to describe what he knows about the administrative roles from these two organizations for example. He may say you know an administrator is defined as someone whos a principal of vice principal.
A head of the department or other terms. And hes going to list and describe their responsibilities again describing the unique characteristics of his accessible population and his sampling frame and then finally what hes gonna talk about the information. The demographic information.
The unique characteristics. Hes gonna collect from a sample. So this for example may be you know sex.
It may be the type of role that they hold the number of hours a week that they they participate in their role and those types of things so hes gonna discuss in detail. The information hes going to collect from his sample. Now hopefully now you understand what is included or have a general idea of whats included in a proposal.
A research proposal in terms of population assessable population sampling frame and sample. I want to make one more note here. Something that i find useful.
When im creating demographic survey questions to collect data from my sample. Sometimes. I can obviously get that archivally.
But oftentimes. I have to develop some type of survey with questions to gain information about the demographics and unique characteristics of my sample. And something that i find useful is the national opinion research center.
General social survey. Ill say that again. The national opinion research center general social survey.
This is a survey that collects demographic information and other useful information and i often find it helpful to look at this survey as im wording demographic questions for a demographic survey that im going to put together for research now were just getting started on what needs to be included in a participant section for a proposal or research plan. We talked to and were just getting started having defined and talked about what you include for our population accessible population. Your sample and sampling frame.
Were now going to move on to sampling design. So in a participant section. You need to include sampling design.
Now. There are two main sampling designs. A single stage and a multiple stage.
A single stage design. It really consists of one stage that is it may be used when a researcher has access to a list of names within a population or assess. Population and plans to sample directly from that list again lets put this in context to make it more concrete.
Lets say for example. A researcher wants to understand the continuing education needs of licensed professional counselors in the commonwealth of virginia and she wants to sample the entire population so shes obtains. A list of all the licensed counselors in the commonwealth of virginia from the virginia board of counseling.
She then randomly chooses or selects. A hundred counselors contacts those counselors and request that each of them complete a survey. She uses a single stage.
Sampling design. Now. Theres also a multiple stage sampling design.
And this refers to sampling.
Thats carried out obviously in multiple stages usually larger populations subdivided into small smaller populations are targeted groupings. Again. Lets take lets look at an example to make this idea.
A little bit more concrete. Lets say for example. A researcher wants to survey online students.
Attending cacrep accredited. Graduate. Counseling programs in order to bender better understand how they develop skills and knowledge via their online courses that they find necessary for their profession in the first stage of sampling.
The researcher goes and obtains a list of all the k cup. Accredited online programs from the k cup. Accrediting.
Body. He then randomly selects five schools from each of the four regions in the us. He contacts those schools then and obtains a list of students from each of those schools so in the second stage of sampling the researcher randomly selects twenty students from each school list he contacts each of these students and requests that they complete a survey.
So he did sampling in two stages first he contacted the accrediting board to get a list and then he contacted specific universities and colleges to get a list and so this is a multiple stage sampling you can you can use multiple different types of sampling at each of the stages. But your sampling design. But you need to talk about in your participants section.
Your sampling design are you going to use a one stage design. Or you gonna do a two stage design. Now were going to talk about once youve chosen what type of design or whats sampling design youre going to use.
Were gonna talk about the different sampling methods and techniques that you can use when you use either one stage or multiple stage design. Now there are two types of sampling. So there are the designs the single and multiple stage and then now were moving on to talking about the two types of sampling that you as a researcher can use and thats random.
Sampling and non random. Sampling. Lets talk about random sampling.
First random sampling. Is when each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected to participate in the study. If participants are randomly selected then biases do not systematically alter the sample.
And its feasible to say that the sample is like the population and therefore the results obtained from the sample during the study can be generalized to that population. This is truly the most desirable type of sampling however its often a very expensive and not very possible type of sampling. But it is the most desirable now in random sampling there are three different types of random sampling that are commonly used there are more than three.
But there are three that are commonly you commonly used in that simple random sampling. Stratified random sampling and clustered sampling. So we have random sampling.
Then the other and then we have types or methods within that random type of sampling then we have non random sampling and non random sampling is probably the most commonly used especially. When youre doing educational or social science research. A non random sampling is when you do not have control over who can be included in your sample.
And you use a you use the population is basically convenient for you now the negative or the downfall of this type of sampling is that not having randomness reduces or limits. The general ability of your actual results again there are multiple types of non random sampling. But the two that and were going to talk about two of those that are often used so now.
Lets look at the different types of random and non random sampling the researchers usually use were first gonna talk about the three specific types of random sampling first of all there is simple random sampling this is when a sample is taken from the entire population and everyone within that population has an equal chance to be selected lets say for example is a researchers. Population is second grade students in one school district and the researcher picks. The name their picks a hundred random participants from the list of the entire second grade student body within that district and let and that random sampling or that random picking of a hundred can usually take place using some type of random number software or random.
Number table you can look more into this in the majority of introductory quantitative research texts they talk about random number tables and different software. So theres simple random sampling. Theres then stratified random sampling.
And this is when individuals are divided into strata or groups for example male versus female and then the individuals are randomly selected from each of those strata. So for example. If youre if the researcher is looking at a population of second grade students within a district.
He or she divides them into males and females and then randomly selects 50. Students or 50 participants that are male and 50. The pence that are female.
That researcher used a stratified random sample and this in a stratified random sample may be useful lets say if the researcher was studying math achievement and we know that sex can affect math achievement and so the researcher wants to make sure that theres an equal number of males and females in the sample finally we have cluster random sampling and this is when groups already exist and the groups are randomly selected so were talking about groups for so for example a researcher could randomly select second grade classes in a district and the students within those classes become part of the part of the research. So these are the three types of random sampling that a researcher may use if they decide to use random sampling in their sampling design. So they can use random sampling in a one stage design.
They can also use it in a multiple stage design and in a multiple stage design. Ill say this they can use random sampling and then non random sampling or non random sampling and then rain them sampling. So were talking about the types of sampling that a researcher can use once theyve chosen a sampling design.
So nuts lets now move on to non random sampling. Which is most often used here. You can see there are two primary types of non random sampling.
Theres purposive sampling. Which is a sample thats selected based on characteristics needed in order to meet the objective of the study. This is really a type of sampling often used in qualitative rather than quantitative.
Research designs and drawing really from qualitative text. Purposive. Sampling can be understood.
As information. Rich. An information really rich method of sampling again individuals are chosen because they need a specific criteria or theyve experienced a certain phenom and the researcher wants to study that within purpose of sampling.
There are then different techniques that a researcher can use and those techniques include everything from maximum variation to typical case sampling to snowball sampling. And because these are primarily qualitative. Im not gonna talk about these necessarily in depth here.
But just know that they exist and patent talks about these different types of sampling with stockist glasser and strauss crest wall. So if youre interested in this type of sampling for mainly a qualitative study. I encourage you to look at those tests.
However. The main non random sampling that a quantitative researcher uses is convenient sampling in convenient sampling. Is basically.
The researcher samples. A group of participants that are accessible or convenient to them. So for looking back at the example of samantha samantha uses online graduate.
Students from the university. That shes employed at because that pot that that are those individuals are accessible or convenient to her a convenient sample can also be a sample of volunteers. So volunteers are considered a convenient sample so again lets go back and look at lets just sort of take a moment and review here.
What what thus far needs to be in a participant section of a proposal or research plan first of all youre going to talk about as we as we said this population. The accessible population and the sample of the sampling frame and the sample youre then going to identify what type of sampling design are you going to use are you going to sample in one stage or multiple stages and then within each stage youre going to talk about whether or not youre going to use random sampling or non random. Sampling and talk about the specific method.
So for example. You may use a single design. And you may choose to use convenience sample now in addition to these elements.
You also need to talk about the sample size remember in a quantitative research plan.
Its desirable to have a large sample size. But what is meant by large well when i say large i mean a sample size large enough to ensure that your research is valid and that you have sufficient statistical power to make conclusions from your results. Lets talk about first research convention.
So your sample size your proposed sample size or your actual sample size needs to meet research conventions. So for example research. Text.
Writers suggests. A minimum of 30 participants for our causal. Comparative studies.
Cresswell. Goggle and borg. And many others.
Recommend a minimum of 15 for experimental studies. So you need to look at the research text and find out what is the research convention and you need to talk about in a proposal. Or research plan.
What that research convention is and how you plan or will meet or do meet that research convention in addition to research convention. Theres statistical convention that determines your sample size. Now.
Unfortunately. With many sample size recommendations from research text. The average power of the null hypothesis significance testing in these typical studies is about.
04 or 06. Now you may go well. Whats the problem with that well youre what you really are looking for is a statistical power of 08.
So you can say with 80 certainty. That your conclusions are correct. And so you need to consider.
What is research convention. You also need to consider what a statistical convention. And you determine the singable size from from a formula that can be found in most analysis.
Texts. So in your participant section. Youre going to talk about you know in specifically.
In a proposal youre going to talk about what is your needed sample size for your chosen research design and urinalysis again the literature suggests what a good sample size is for a chosen research design and then you can calculate using sample size and effect size. What you need for a strong strong statistical power. And again.
This is found in most analysis. Texts. Spss will do it for you g.
Power. Will do it. For you.
Some statistical texts. Actually have formulas for specific specific designs and specific analyses. So for example.
If youre looking at like a multiple regression. I think its woerner dont quote me on this i think its warner that says you have to have a hundred and eight or might be jack mccann fidel 108 plus. The number of variables that youre studying.
So you can look in analysis text for specific information. But in addition to all the other elements that weve talked about you need to talk about sample size in a research proposal. So finally in a participant section.
You need to talk about random assignment or group equivalence. If youre gonna do a group. Comparison.
Study or implement some type of intervention. So lets talk. A little bit about this.
Lets start with random assignment. Remember random assignment is the assignment of participants to a group on a random basis that means you have a list or a sampling. You have a list of participants.
And you randomly assign them to either the treatment or control group. And its random. So every individual on that list on that participant list has equal opportunity to be either part of the treatment or a control.
Group or intervention or non intervention. Group. And this really ensures that participants in different groups are reasonably comparable.
It eliminates the possibility of systematic differences. So you can really say that the differences that you see in the results of your study are due to the treatment or the intervention. So if you plan to randomly assign to treatment or control intervention.
Or non intervention. Or multiple treatments you need to talk about this and talk about how it will be done now as weve taught as we talk as we talk about read different research designs and its ideal to randomly assigned. But not always possible there are alternatives to random assignment that ensures equivalents or helps control for the selection threat to validity.
And usually these alternatives are used. Whenever. Youre conducting a quasi experimental design.
Pre experimental design. Or causal. Comparative design.
And these alternatives are matching. The use of homogeneous groups. Or an analysis of covariance in which you use a pretest or you do some type of statistical control.
So in the participant section. You need to talk a little and you need to talk about are you going to use random assignment or one of these alternatives. So now weve talked about all the different elements that you need to include in your participant section of a research proposal or research plan and specifically.
Weve really focused on a quantitative research proposal or plan. We talked about you need to include characteristics. In a description of your population of your sample of your sampling.
Frame and accessible. Population. You need to include the sampling design and talk about within that design remember its either a multiple or single design you need to talk about the type of sampling methods or procedures.
Youre gonna use are you gonna use random or non random. And what specifically are you go what specific method are you going to use you need to talk about sample size you need to talk about what is expected for research convention. As well as the statistical analysis that you chose and then finally if youre gonna do a group comparison you need to talk about the type of assignment that youre going to use or you need to talk about the alternatives that youre going to use to ensure group equivalence.
So now you should be ready to go ahead and write the participants section of your proposed research plan. .
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