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Am dr. Market alum and i want to welcome you to the fourth chapter of of schultz and schultz. As history of modern psychology today.
Well be talking the new psychology by which is meant vil homelands founding of psychology. Well also talk about what later historians referred to as the forgotten germans people like a being housed brentano stumpf and cope. But lets get started by talking about the gedanken messer.
This is a thought meter or mind gauge that wouldnt invented as a multitasking experiment. So its a modified pendulum clock that was designed to present with an auditory and visual stimulus and he used it to measure the process of perceiving two stimuli simultaneously. Now for untrained observers.
It seemed simultaneous he found that it took an eighth of a second longer to register both stimuli sequentially. Now hes the only participant in this study. And he concluded that it was impossible to perceive two stimuli at the same time.
But it gives you a sense of would as researcher with his gedanken messer. One found psychology as a formal academic discipline. He established the first experimental laboratory in 1879 at the university of leipzig.
He edited the first journal philosophical study started in 1881 and he was a promoter of systematic experimentation. I he and illiberal ii intended to found a new science to now this quote is taken from his book thats from the preface. The first edition of his book principles of physiological psychology which well talk about in a minute.
But he says the work. I here present to the public is an attempt to mark out. A new domain of science.
The textbook draws a distinction between the founding of a field of study in originating a field. But both are clearly necessary as to ones life. He was born near mannheim germany 18 32.
His father was a pastor and both of his parents were described as sociable as a child he spent more time daydreaming than studying his father once came to a school and slapped him for not paying attention to his teacher and easter. He remembered this later in life. He was not a very good student and he actually failed his first year at gymnasium.
He was going to be a doctor. But changed his major to physiology. He worked with both muller and helmholtz muller at the university of berlin and helmholtz at heidelberg and wouldnt finished his doctorate in 1855 from the university of heidelberg his first book was contributions to a theory of sensory perception in 1858 where he describes original experiments inappropriate methods for psychology.
However he published his principles of physiological psychology in odd 2 volumes in 1873 and 1874 and this book was developed from lectures for a class he developed in 1867 on physiological psychology principles is considered to be his masterpiece but the title may be a little misleading at the time physiological and experimental returns that were interchangeable in german lets talk about his years at leipzig. Hes appointed professor of psychology at the university of leipzig and he would spend the next 45 years of his life. There and off to the right.
That is the seal for the university of leipzig as i said earlier. He establishes the first research lab and established was a journal. Philosophical studies.
He also had a demonstration lab. There in 1875. Now about philosophical studies.
He wanted to name the journal psychological studies. But there was already a journal with that name. Although.
He was able to change the name to psychological studies. In 1906. Once attracted a lot of graduate students.
And was a very popular lecturer. He was popular internationally really big in russia and he taught classes of 600 students in his personal life. He was very regimented.
He was he had a big interest in politics he was a very patriotic german nationalist which was a problem later it caused him some problems when because the nobel prize in 1915. He was very pro german the world was involved in world war one at the time and the nobel prize committee frowned upon that he was married to his wife sophie. They had three children he had a son max who became a prominent philosopher.
He also finished his autobiography as one other note his autobiography just a few days before his death. Which is nice because then you know its complete you know he only missed a few days on his autobiography. He also comes up with this idea of cultural psychology.
So it doesnt just found psychology. As an experimental science. He produced a 10 volume work on social psychology.
Published between 1900. And 1920. Now sometimes.
This is mistranslated as folk psychology. Probably because the word volk means both people or folk in german. But it deals with the stages of human mental development.
As expressed in language art. Myths. Social customs law and morals now wouldnt believed that scientific experimentation on learning and memory was impossible because were conditioned by language and culture.
So he thought that only simpler mental functions could be studied through laboratory methods. So he viewed this cultural psychology is very different from experimental psychology. However.
He said. It was the most satisfying experience of his working life to work on this cultural psychology. It didnt catch on in america.
Though. Where psychology at this point. Was heading in a very different direction.
The subject. Matter of when psychology was consciousness and conscious experience. And because he focused on the minds self organizing capacity.
He went with the term volunteerism to describe. It and volunteerism is the power of the will to organize the minds content into higher level. Thought processes one draws a distinction between what he calls immediate experience and immediate experience.
According to wound. Psychologists should be concerned only with the study of immediate experience. Which is unbiased by personal interpretations.
Needed experience is providing information or knowledge about something other than the elements of an experience.
So for example. A toothache if you describe that you have general discomfort. Thats describing your immediate experience.
But if you label it as a toothache then that is immediate experience because youre labeling it. But doesnt want you to think about your thinking you just want you to talk about that youre feeling pain. Not labeling.
The pain. What is his method of introspection. Well introspection is examining ones own mental state in german.
This is experimental south bay buxton. And wouldnt cause this internal perception. And he has some criteria for it.
He said. Observers must be in a state of what he calls strained attention. They must be able to repeat.
The observation. Several times. Which refers to reliability of these results and it must be possible to vary.
The experimental conditions. Which is why this is an experiment so introspection forwont occurs under strict rules and conditions. He believed that observers.
Meaning the experimenter should be. Rigorously. Trained and so they had to do 10000.
Individual introspections before they are able to provide meaningful data for his laboratory. This would imply that vint is mostly doing qualitative research. But thats not the case.
Most of his research is quantitative usually dealing with reaction time the vast majority of his research is quantitative not qualitative. What were the goals for foot well he outlined his goals is to analyze conscious processes into their basic elements meaning for him sensations and feelings which well talk about in a minute. He wouldnt he wanted to discover how those elements are synthesized or organized and determine the laws of connection governing.
The organization of the elements. The term he uses for this too is a perception. Which is the process of organizing mental elements into a whole as a creative synthesis.
Now he also calls this the law of psychic resultant. I realize this is a lot of jargon in a lot of terminology and it really disappears from psychology. But an important thing to keep in mind is a perception is an active process.
Its not passive. The british empiricists saw this as a passive process wooden sees as an active process to explain or an example of a perception is that when we see a tree. We comprehend the tree as a whole and not as the elementary sensations and feelings that constitute the tree and so thats what winches is interested in his goals here so lets talk about sensations and feelings.
Lets talk about our feelings. So these are the two elementary forms of experience sensations are aroused. Whenever a sense organ is stimulated and one thought that there was no fundamental difference between sensations and images.
And that they could be classified by intensity duration and sense modality feelings were the subjective compliments of sensations. But feelings didnt arise directly from a sense organ blunt develops his tri dimensional theory of feelings based on from his own subjective introspections. He says that we feel pleasure and displeasure tension and relaxation and excitement and depression you could take any state that youre currently in and plotted along these axes thats his theory.
His student tichenor said that he personally only experienced pleasure and displeasure and once theory on this tri dimensional theory of feelings really went nowhere. So lets talk about some criticisms and ones legacy. Too by 1925 only 25.
Psychologists in germany or people in germany. Identified themselves. As psychologists.
And they were only at 14 universities. In germany psychology. Was just considered to be a subspecialty of philosophy and one of the problems was that volant had no interest in applying psychology to real world.
Practical problems and so it just wasnt supported by the german government who ran the universities as to criticisms of his psychology. One of the problems is which introspection is correct. What if two different laboratories come up with different introspections wouldnt thought that if you trained people enough that they would agree and so you could achieve reliability that way other critics.
I qatal who will talk about later studied with wood and he said tell so that he was incapable of wanting introspection and that bunch was incapable of it too. He said that it was such an artificial situation that no one was really capable of it another criticism of wood is that he thought that england started world war one he also thought because and again. You dont have to be a history major world war one begins because germany invades belgium.
But once said that germany invaded belgium at the start of world war one is an act of self defense so he saw himself as a german patriot. But other people really saw him as a loon. There was no defense for germany at in their actions.
At this point. A third criticism is that other schools of thought develop in germany at this time. And well discuss this in a moment for example gestalt psychology.
That starts as a reaction to vote and psychoanalysis isnt doesnt really have anything to do with what but it happening it actually develops an austria not germany. But they speak german. So the textbook refers to that too in terms of ones legacy.
Though its easy to criticize him. But he provides psychology with the trappings of a science. He said.
He would create a new science and he did how many people can do that and many historians still consider him to be the most important psychologist of all time well lets switch gears now and move on to what other historians of psychology have referred to as the forgotten. Germans and well start with hermann ebbinghaus is a pretty incredible guy born near bonn. He went to university.
There and in hall and berlin. He also studied abroad in both england and france and when he was in london at a bookstore. He bought fechners book elements of psychophysics and i decided to have the goal of applying experimental methods to higher mental processes.
Which vaunted said was impossible now he begins with the initial formation of associations. And he did that so he could control the conditions under which associations were formed or learned. If you want to think about it that way and that made the study of learning much more objective now something to keep in mind is that effing house had no academic appointment.
No university that he worked in he had no teachers no students in no laboratory. But over a period of five years. He conducted a series of controlled and comprehensive studies with himself as the main subject.
So he comes up with this idea of nonsense syllables.
Which really is revolutionary. Once student. Tichenor said that it was the first advance in the field of learning since aristotle and so you can see a list of nonsense syllables off to the right this is actually a really bad list.
Though as a lot of them are actually words like rib and mob and wet. Well come back to that too now one of the problems is that meanings have already been attached to words. And thats a confound that wouldnt recognize too so existing associations can facilitate the learning of new material.
And that cant be controlled by the experimenter now in reality. Epping house used words with multiple syllables. And he was fluent in german french english latin and greek and so it was hard for him to try to find truly meaningless syllables for himself.
But its important to think that in the entire list is meaningless maybe not individual syllables and so thats a distinction later historians make so some of his research compares things like meaningful syllables to nonsense syllables. So. He memorizes stanzas of byrons poem donne.
One and then he compares that to nonsense syllables and he finds that its nine times harder to learn nonsense syllables epping house. I point this out also he was systematic in his personal habits. As well so he learned the material at the same time every day and in experimental.
We would refer to this as constancy of conditions and thats really good because it controls for extraneous variables that we havent identified yet and so hes a great researcher. I guess thats the point lets talk about the forgetting curve he also studies other variables related to memory. So like the effects of over learning associations.
Within lists reviewing material time elapsed between learning and recall to the right is his forgetting curve. This research. Yeah ideals the that because forgetting curve and it shows that materials forgotten rapidly in the first few hours after you learn it but then it stabilizes and you can always remember some of it and if you took a foreign language in high school you may have experienced this too where after you havent taken spanish for a while you forget most of it.
But you still remember some of it he published his book publish his book on memory a contribution to experimental psychology. And its important to keep this in mind. Too that no peer reviewed journal would publish this research today because the whole project.
It only has one participant. Which is ebbing house and hes also the experimenter and so you would never get this by a peer reviewed journal today. He didnt make any theoretical contributions to psychology.
And he founded no school of psychology. But his impact is in some ways much greater than once because his research is still seen as being valid. The things that that effing house discovered.
We still talk about in cognitive psychology. He thought that we could study higher mental processes. And so.
He showed how it was possible and so ebbinghaus is a great researcher lets switch gears and talk about franz brentano brentano was a priest he left the catholic church because he refused to accept the doctrine of papal infallibility. He was a professor of philosophy at the university of vienna. He eventually had to resign that position too because he got married and in austria.
At that time. It was illegal for a ex priest to get married so he had to resign that position. He publishes his book psychology from an empirical standpoint in 1874.
I point out to freak took five of his classes. He was a very popular teacher. Brentano was and so and christian von ehrenfels.
Also was one of his students. Hes later influential in gestalt psychology. Brentanos idea was something he called act psychology.
Which was that we concentrate on mental activities. Not the content. So he didnt see psychology as something that you could study experimentally.
But you could study it empirically by thinking about your thinking. Now. The example.
I use is in your book uses is experiencing redness so he argues for a distinction between experience as a stint as a structure and experience as an activity so if you see a red flower. The sensory content of redness is different from the act of experiencing redness so hes comparing a physical quality to a mental quality. Ill admit though ive never understood why this is an important distinction.
But brentano is brentano lets talk about carl stump stump. Was born into a medical family and was interested in science. But became more interested in music.
Now he was also a student of brentanos and i was later appointed as a professor at the most prestigious university in germany university of berlin in 1894 stump is considered to be at the time once main rival in terms of their labs. And some of his students went on to form the school of gestalt psychology. Specifically.
Wolfgang k. Hler. And kurt kafka.
They were fundamental in forming gestalt psychology. And they were students of his he publishes the book psychology of tone in two volumes in 1883 in 1890 now stumps approach is what he calls phenomenology. Which is the examination of unbiased experience.
As it occurs strophe disagrees with what about breaking down experience into its elements. Because he found that to be artificial and a good example is in studying tones or music. Now.
Ones approach to that and this is the question is whos more credible and this is why he was considered to be once main rival. So if youre studying tone. Who should you should be studying it now once said that you could use highly trained lab observers stumpf said you should use trained musicians because theyre familiar with music basically stoph refused to accept the results of ones lab.
And so they had they didnt agree with each other the last person would be talking about is oswald coop. He was known he actually was once lab assistant and he was known as the kind mother of ones lab. But he saw the limitations of ones view of psychology.
Also he became a professor at the university of verts berg in 1894 and formed what was known as the verts berg school. He calls his system systematic experimental. Answers.
Introspection. So he would have people perform. A complex task.
And then provide a retrospective report about their cognitive processes that they were going through. While doing the task wouldnt does not like this he refers to it as mock introspection and that it wasnt quantitative wouldnt did not want people to think about their thinking. And so retrospective reports were not allowed the other thing that copes lab comes up with is this idea of imageless thoughts that thoughts can occur without any sensory or image content and so copes research should identify non sensory aspects of consciousness.
This is i believe arguing about how many angels can dance on the head of a pin. But these were the issues in german psychology in the late 1800s thats chapter four and thanks for listening. .
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